Luoyang is in Henan Province, on the north bank of the River Luo. The town is cut by two .rivers which flow into the Luo: the Jian to the west and the Chan to the east. To the north is plateau country and to the south the foothills of the Xiong Er Shan mountains, a spur of the Qinling Shan chain. The river Luo running between these mountains empties into the Huang He, or Yellow River, some 35 miles downstream. The name of the province Henan means means “soth of the river,” i.e., the Ye ow River.
East of Luoyang the North China Plains begin, stretching hundreds of miles eastward to the sea. Over the centuries it has been covered by silt brought downstream by the Yellow River, and because of its fertility it has always been the mainstay of Chinese agriculture. In Henan itself , which encompasses only a small of area of this plain, there is little rain at all for about eight months of the year. Then in July and August the summer rains pour down. As a result, Henan has a record of disastrous floods, and a major task for rulers over the centuries has been the control of the river flow.
Henan is the heart of ancient China. As far back as the neolithic era (6,000-5,000 B.C) the area was well populated. The capital of the bronze-age Shang Dynasty (1766-1122 B.C.) was located in the north
Not far from Luoyang. at present-day An Yang. Then in the eleventh century B.C.one of the Zhou kings made his temporary capital at a site outside of Luoyang called Luo Yi. Later, in 770 B.C. the eastern Zhou Dynasty set up their capital at another site in the Luoyang district.
Thus the settlements in and around Luoyang were to remain the capital on and off.until A.D. 937, a period of more than 2000 years. Since the 1949 revolution attempts have been made to develop the industry of Luoyang, and the town now has machine-building works, chemical factories, textile plants, glass works, and a large tractor factory. This last plant, known as the East ls Red tractor factory, employs about 23,000 people and is said to produce around 26,000 tractors per year, mainly the 46-horsepower rubber-tired caterpillars type.